Compared to other vertical agreements, there is more flexibility. For example, the following types of agreements are not considered "pure" under the category exemption (they are called "non-hardcore"): Article 101, paragraph 1, of the EUF prohibits agreements between companies with the purpose or effect of restricting, preventing or distorting competition within the EU and affecting trade between EU Member States. This prohibition is relevant to all agreements between two or more companies, whether they are competitors. There are cases where certain types of agreements do not automatically fall within the scope of Article 101 of the TFUE, for example. B: Vertical agreements are widely accepted because they are less likely to solve competition problems than horizontal agreements. Horizontal agreements are concluded between two current or potential competitors. Some vertical agreements probably have restrictions that do not comply with Article 101 of the TFUE. These are agreements that contain provisions: in addition, vertical agreements appear to be more effective in commercial activity. The most common vertical restrictions are: vertical agreements that meet the exemption requirements and do not contain so-called "strict" restrictions on competition are exempt from the prohibition under Article 101, paragraph 1 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union by Regulation (EC) No.
330/2010 . The main exception concerns vehicle distribution agreements which, until 31 May 2013, are subject to a three-year extension of the Council`s Regulation (EC) (EC) No. 461/2010 (Regulation (EC) No. 1400/2002 .  Although the latter regulation applies Regulation (EC) No. 330/2010 to auto repair and spare parts distribution agreements as of June 1, 2013, it also complements Regulation 330 with three additional "hardcore" clauses to determine whether a vertical agreement actually restricts competition and whether, in this case, the benefits predominate over anti-competitive effects, often depending on the market structure. However, vertical agreements may present competitive risks if .B potential to increase barriers to entry, reduce or mitigate competition, and avoid other opportunities in the event of horizontal agreements.  A vertical agreement is a term used in competition law to refer to agreements between companies at different levels of the supply chain.